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WikiLeaks was officially launched in 2007. It is a not-for-profit media organisation and their goal is to bring important news and information to the public (Wikileaks 2012). WikiLeaks (2012) also mentioned that they has sustained and triumphed against legal and political attacks designed to silence their publishing organisation, journalists and anonymous sources. It further explained that they has combined high-end security technologies with journalism and ethical principles and they accept anonymous sources of information. Wikileaks aim to create a better society for all people.

According to Benkler (2011), Wikileaks became the center of an international storm surrounding the role of the individual in the networked public sphere after its first document released. Wikileaks’s importance is showing that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this is why the accept anonymous sources. However, Wikileaks will investigate all the anonymous sources before they publish. The emerging of wikileaks may well impose serious collateral damage on some citizen journalists (Benkler 2011).


A. 2006-2009: Award-winning site exposing corruption and abuse around the world

Wikileaks is the winner of  Economist Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression award (2008) and Amnesty International human rights reporting award (New Media) (2009). Wikileaks was an organization that seems to have functioned very much as it described itself: a place where documents that shed light on powerful governments or corporations anywhere in the world, or, in the case of the climate scientists’ emails, on a matter of enormous global public concern, could be aired publicly. The pattern of Wikileaks releasing information relating to a range of very different countries (Benkler 2011).

B. March 2010: Leaking the 2008 Pentagon Report on the threat of Wikileaks

Wikileaks released a 2008 Pentagon report arguing that Wikileaks is a threat, while recognizing the site as a source of investigative journalism critical of U.S. military procurement and its conduct in war. The Pentagon report provides significant insight into what Wikileaks was doing by 2008, and why the military was concerned about it. The 2008 Pentagon Report, then, sees Wikileaks as a journalistic organization whose structure and organization make it dangerous to the U.S. military. uses trust as a center of gravity by assuring insiders, leakers, and whistleblowers who pass information to personnel or who post information to the Web site that they will remain anonymous (Benkler 2011).

C. April-October 2010:Collateral Murder, Afghanistan, and Iraq

April 2010 marked the beginning of a series of four releases of documents embarrassing to the United States government. In July 2010, Wikileaks released a new cache of documents; these were war logs from the field in Afghanistan. In October, Wikileaks added one more major release. It consisted of war logs similar to those released in July, this time pertaining to the Iraq war. Benkler (2011) mentioned that Wikileaks posted close to 400,000 field reports from Iraq in what the BBC described as “a heavily censored form.” BBC news (2010) stated that the site released almost 400,000 secret US military logs detailing its operations in Iraq in October.

D. The Last Straw: The Embassy Cables

Another document was released on November 28 and it was more careful and selective than any of the prior releases. The release of the final batch was followed by a massive escalation of attacks on Wikileaks as an organization and website, and on Assange as an individual. It is the mismatch between what Wikileaks in fact did in this final round and the multi-system attack on it that drives the need for a deeper explanation.

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BBC news 2010, What is Wikileaks?, accessed 27/10/2012,

Benkler, Y 2011, A free irresponsible press: Wikileaks and the battle over the soul of the networked fourth estate, accessed 27/10/2012,

Wikileaks 2012, About, accessed 27/10/2012,



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Are you a twitterer? Do you own a twitter account? How often do you tweet? Does twitter change the way you live? Johnson (2009) mentioned that the most fascinating thing about Twitter is not what it’s doing to us but what we’re doing to it. Consumer today are no longer consumer anymore, they become prosumer. So what is prosumer? It’s a combination of producer & consumer. It conceptualize users of the day use their media. For instance twitter, you contribute content by tweeting what’s going on with you as a producer and you take information from the twitter as consumer. So there you are, prosumer.

Twitter Usage Statistics 2012 Infographic

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The image above shows a study in 2010, it is possible to be addicted to social media as 23% of college students have addiction to it. 21% of them actually have physical and mental distress without exposing to any social media within 24 hours.  Undeniable, social media is a very important thing in our life, especially teenagers. Research also shows that Twitter may be harder resist than cigarettes, alcohol, sex, caffeine and sleep. How about you? Are you a heavy user of twitter?

This is a video talks about what people do with twitter.

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Globally, the total number of people using twitter increase rapidly and it achieve 300,000,000 users in 2011. Peoples use twitter for different purposes, as we could see from the video above. Below are some of my example on how people use twitter.

1. Social communication – Most of the people use Twitter as their own interest. They tweet anything related to them and when their followers see the tweet, reply it and there goes the social communication. We use twitter as a platform to basically tell people what we are doing, what we are thinking and so on. Besides, there are twitter photo-sharing services, such as TwitPic and YFrog, allow us to post photos to share with our friends through Twitter.

2. Networking –  Twitter’s system of shortened links and hashtags make it easy to find people or businesses posting tweets in the same areas that you are. When we posted anything, we can add a hastag “#” to line it to the specific topic or others, this enable people to search easily and you may find people that having the same interest with you as well. Besides you may tag any of your followers with using a “@” in twitter, it’s called as mention. Like when you are having lunch with your friend, you might update your twitter – Having lunch with @abc now. Besides, peoples like to follow things they are interest with. For example, you are a football lover supporting Manchester United and u may follow them in twitter to know the latest updates.

3. Education purpose – Like the subject we are taking now, DIGC202 require us to create an twitter account to tweet about our assignment topic weekly. We are asked to add in the hashtag with #DIGC202 as well. So when we click in the hashtag, we could see what students from Australia main campus tweet about and same goes to they can see what we tweet about. This makes the assessment more interesting as well.

4. Business purpose – Many companies have their own twitter account and they do update frequently.They use their Twitter profiles to increase traffic and find new visitors for their websites. According to Southern (2012), many businesses specifically offer special deals and promotions exclusively through Twitter. Twitter’s “retweet” function allows other Twitter users to re-post your tweet if they find it interesting; being retweeted by several popular Twitter users can significantly increase exposure for you tweet and your business. Below are the examples of companies using twitter for their business (Smarty 2008).

This video is telling people Twitter is faster than earthquake. You can know what’s happening around immediately through twitter.


Johnson S 2009, How twitter will change the way we live, accessed 6/10/2012,,9171,1902818-4,00.html

Smarty A 2008, 16 examples of huge brands using twitter for business, accessed 6/10/2012,

Southern S 2012, The purpose of twitter, accessed 6/10/2012,

Steve 2011, Social media growth 2006-2011, accessed 6/10/2012,


Here’s a short video clip about blogging before I start writing.

‘A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.” Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in cronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominantly.’ – Matisse Enzer (2011)

In the article of Shirky (2002), he argued that most of us can’t make money by doing weblog. If by blogging itself, it is possible but quite hard to make money but there’s such thing call Nuffnang which is born in Malaysia. Well, what is Nuffnang? Nuffnang is a place where bloggers generate income through blog ads placed by various brands, and become part of a close-knit community through a vast range of exclusive events and contests they organize and support (Nuffnang, 2012). is launched on 27th February 2007.

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Nuffnang allows blogger to make money through blogging. First is placing advertisement in their own blog and when someone visit your blog and click on the advertisement, money counts. Second type is by participating in the contest organize by them and lastly do an advertorial like a blog review for a certain brand and you will get paid.

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This is a famous blogger from Malaysia. Her name is Jane and her blog is I’m going to use her blog as example.

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So the two TLC advertisement is what I’ve mentioned just now placing advertisements in their own blog. So when people read your blog and click on it, money counts. However, blogger have to be hardworking to update their blog often to increase the traffic to their website. Nuffnang cooperate with many different brand such as Nike, Citibank, Nokia, F&N, Disney Pictures, Honda, Samsung, Proctor & Gamble and many more. Therefore there will be many different kind of advertisement appear in the blog.

This is the money earned from the advertisements. I got this from my friend, she’s a blogger and she placed Nuffnang in her blog too. According to my friend, she received the payment twice before. Basically she just blog about her daily life and nothing special much, but it could generates money as well.

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This is a competition organized by Nuffnang for the bloggers to win cash prizes and products. Blogger just have to follow the step provided by them and they might winning it. Simple and cool way to get reward.

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Lastly, this is the advertorial and the blogger is doing blog review for Samsung Galaxy Note. Some company like to find blogger to do a blog posting on their new launch product. The main reason is most of the famous blogger have many followers and they could influence those followers to purchase the product.

According to Sifry’s Alert (2004), on an average weekday, there are over 15,000 new weblogs created per day. That means that a new weblog is created somewhere in the world every 5.8 seconds. There are over 275,000 individual posts every day which means that on average, more than 3 blogs are updated every second. The two charts below to support what he said.

Technorati tracking graph of weblog growth

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As we could see, the number of blogger is increasing day by day. Blog allows us to express our own thoughts without any barriers. Besides, it doesn’t cost anything as well. In this platform, everyone can be a writer for anything.

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The source above is a survey done by over 1000 bloggers across US. According to Rampton (2012), there are an estimated 31 Million bloggers in the US as of July 2012. Rampton continued saying that: –

  • 8% Enough Money To Support A Family
  • 81% Never Make $100 From Blogging
  • 9% Enough To Sustain Their Personal Lifestyle Blogging 4-6 Hours A Day
  • 2% Make $150K+ Blogging 1-2 Hours A Day

There are 19% of US bloggers actually makes money and having a big impact in their life. As i mentioned the blogger just now, Jane who’s from Malaysia she makes a lot of money through blogging as well. For your information, she did mention in her blog before she bought herself a car one year ago and she’s only 20 years old. However, i agreed with what Shirky said, blogging just could be an amateur to earn some side income.


Enzer, M 2011, Glossary of Internet Terms, accessed 26/9/2012,

Nuffnang 2012, Our Story, accessed 26/9/2012,

Rampton, J 2012, Blogging stats 2012 (infographic), accessed 26/9/2012,

Sifry’s Alert 2004, Technorati tracks 3 million blogs, accessed 26/9/2012,

Convergence Culture

Spend your few minutes to watch the video below. The video is very interesting and it shows a lot of fact that we might don’t know. It is all about the media in our daily life.

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This week, we gonna look into media convergence. What it is about? In the article of Henry Jenkins, he said that: “media convergence is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets, genres and audiences.” Convergence talks about technological, industrial, cultural and social changes.

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Familiar with the two phones above? Compare the traditional nokia phone with today’s iphone. There are so many differences that’s why the Henry Jerkin mentioned that our cell phones are not simply telecommunications devices. Besides calling and sending text messages, what else you use for your phone today?

#1: Facebook

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#2: Instagram

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#3: Whatsapp

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#4: Gaming

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#5: Photo editing

FotoRus (GifRus) อีกแอพฯ ที่น่าลองสำหรับคนชอบถ่ายภาพ ตกแต่งภาพ app review FotoRus (GifRus) อีกแอพฯ ที่น่าลองสำหรับคนชอบถ่ายภาพ ตกแต่งภาพ app review

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In today society, phone is playing a very important role in our life. True? Besides for basic function for calling and text messaging, we used our phone to log in to all sort of social media, online chatting, play games, take photo, edit photo, video calls, e-mail and so much more. Smartphone today comes with many function that are so useful in our life, this is the reason why we call them as ‘Smart’ phone. In the old times, people use phone for calling and sending text messages but today we use phones for so many different purpose. This is  when media convergence happens. Convergence is more than a corporate branding opportunity; it represents a reconfiguration of media power and a reshaping of media aesthetics and economics (Jenkins, 2004). The power of media and technology reshape our society today.

According to the author, convergence represents an expanding opportunity for media conglomerates, since content that succeeds in one sector can expand its market reach across other platforms. I do agree with what the authors said, as convergence happens all the media will be joint together. For example news, in the old time news are only available in newspaper and then slowly bringing in to TV and radio. But what happen in the society today? We could read news online. Most of the media owner have their own news website such as The Star Online, Malaysia Kini, Sin Chew Daily and others. Those smart phone have different type of news application as well for both local and global news. According to Mallard (n.d.), convergence provide more efficient organization because the same reporter can write the story, read a version of it on television, discuss it on radio and publish it (along with the other components) on the Internet. Media convergence saves time and money. However, there are some drawback as well. The emerging of technology and internet provide many choices for the customers, therefore customer loyalty is one of the consideration. As there are many choices available, consumers will switch their choice easily therefore all the organization have put more effort in this competing society. There are always advantage and disadvantage in everything, its base on how we perceive it.

” Thanks to the proliferation of channels and the portability of

new computing and telecommunications technologies,

we are entering an era where media will be everywhere and

we will use all kinds of media in relation to

each other.” – Henry Jerkins (2004)


Mallard, D n.d., Reasons for Media Convergence, accessed 21/9/2012,

Jenkins, H 2004, The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol.71, no.1, pp33-43.

Copyright. Plagiarism. Piracy.

People like us in the society today expect things to be free on the internet. We download free movie, free song, free image, free video and others. We search for free things on the web everyday. Who really cares about copyright, piracy and plagiarism? What if someday we have to pay for everything we use in the internet? Well, how much do you really know about them?

[ 1. Copyright ]

copyright all rights reserved logo Blogging Rules: Knowing About Copyrights

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What is copyright? According to Australian Government Attorney-General’s Department, copyright is a type of property that is founded on a person’s creative skill and labour. It is designed to prevent the unauthorised use by others of a work, that is, the original form in which an idea or information has been expressed by the creator. The law on copyright in Malaysia is governed by the Copyright Act 1987 (the “Act”) which came into force on 1 December 1987. The law has undergone various significant updates since then, with amendments to the Act taking effect in 1990, 1999, 2000 and 2003 (MIPA 2011). According to MIPA as well, literary works, artistic works, musical works, films, sound recordings and broadcasts are the kinds of works protected under copyright law.

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The left side of the diagram is copyrights which it is exclusive to the owner  or creator of something. Copyright is needed to reward all those creative people. In the middle of the diagram which is fair use means copyright works can be use without permission for some purpose. While the right side is use of copyrighted works which we actually don’t need any permission from the copyright owner.

[ 2. Plagiarism ]

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Are you familiar with the words and symbols in the image? How often do you use it? How much you need it when doing your assignment? Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas. In fact, plagiarize means to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own, to use (another’s production) without crediting the source, to commit literary theft and to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source (Plagiarism. org 2012). In short, plagiarism involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward, it is an act of fraud.

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We are always told by lecturers to aware of plagiarism. It is very important to give credit to anything we copy form someone’s work. We should not copy something completely from the internet and we have to remember give credit to anything we used.

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[ 3. Piracy ]

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According to UNESCO (2007), piracy includes he reproduction and distribution of copies of copyright-protected material, or the communication to the public and making available of such material on on-line communication networks, without the authorization of the right owner(s) where such authorization is required by law. It looks into few different type of works including music, literature, films, software, videogames, broadcasting programs and signals. Today, we could find a lot of pirate goods in the market. For instance DVD, CD, games, branded bag and so on. There are too much of pirated goods and why people goes for them? Simply because they are cheaper.

The technological society today brought up a lot of piracy and plagiarism issues. In the abstract of Snapper’s article (1999), he explained that piracy is the infringement of a copyright while plagiarism is the failure to give credit. I had discussed about copyright, plagiarism and piracy before this to let everyone clear about them. According to Snapper as well, plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy on the web. Do you agree with it? I do agree with Snapper because the failure of giving credit to the author is like using someone’s work as your own work. Why shall we need copyright? That’s because people who created and put a lot of effort in their work need to be protected. Besides, Snapper (1999) also said that plagiarism is the failure to abide by scholarly standards for citation of sources and these are important to assure us that information can be verified and traced to its source. For instance, you did an assignment and you did not give any credit to the original author, how could u trace back all the information? However, the rapid growth of internet leads to the increase of online plagiarism.  People today copy and paste information without thinking about plagiarism. Because everyone think that (continue with the image below).

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Australian Government Attorney-General’s Department, n.d., What is Copyright? accessed 12/9/2012,

Malaysian Intellectual Property Association (MIPA) 2011, Copyright, accessed 12/9/2012,

Plagiarism. org 2012, What is Plagiarism? accessed 12/9/2012,

Snapper, J 1999, On the Web, plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy, accessed 8/9/2012,

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2007, What is Piracy? accessed 12/9/2012,


We are surrounded and fascinated by media today, aren’t we?

Media have become such an integrated part of our lives that most of the time we are not even aware we are using media. It’s like blending ourselves in the media world and we did not aware that we are actually using them in our daily activity. Undeniable, media had become the biggest part of our lives. Agree with it?

Let’s just spell out the things you do daily and see how much of them are related to media. By then, you will know the answer.

You get up in the morning to the sound of the phone-alarm, get yourself prepare and off to college. Get in your car, turn on the “radio” and drive all the way to college. While on the way to college, you drive through highway and saw many “billboard” along the highway. When you reach college earlier, take out your phone and browse through some “social media website” – “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “Instagram” and so on.  You might receive messages as well and you reply them via “Whatsapp”, “Line”, “Messanger” etc. “Textbook” was taken out when class started. Drive all the way back home again after class dismiss, “radio” is on and “billboard” appearing along the highway again. When you reach home, you turn on your laptop for several purposes. Log in to the “social media website” again, or you might relax yourself by listening song in the “Youtube” or watch some “online drama / movie”. After your relaxation time, you have to do some assignment. “Google” as your best friend while doing assignment, you can search anything you want to aid you in the assignment progress. At the same time, you might chatting with your friends through the social media again. There goes the end of the day, see how many media you used in your daily life. 

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Did you realize how many type of media you used everyday? All of those activities are expressed in the way we use, co-create, and give meaning to media in our everyday lives (Deuze, 2006). The centrality of using and making media in everyday life reveals our endless fascination with media. No one is ‘outside’ anymore, whether by choice or necessity. This showed that media have become central to our understanding of ourselves and the world in which we live. Media is like a mirror of the society which reflects each and everything about the society to us.

Peoples today choose and filter the media they want and they do not want to use and see. For instance the example i mentioned above, people today are more on social networking compare to the traditional media. Especially the Y generation, they spent most of their time on new media.  They look for job, shopping, spend their leisure time and others on internet. This is why lead to the rapid growth of internet.

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The chart above showed that 92 percent of employers and recruiters already use or plan to use social networks to find job candidates this year. As we could see, business today have slowly shift to new media form where people find job through internet instead of newspaper and other traditional media. Besides, there are more interactive advertising as well due to society are more into the internet today. Wasserman (2012) revealed that U.S. online advertising as revenues topped $31 billion, a 22% jump over 2010 and a new record, according to the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB). Add on, online shopping is increasing year by year as well. Internet provide a huge marketplace for the society. Ritchie (2012) mentioned that according to a survey by Belgium-based InSites Consulting, about 61 percent of U.S. companies listen to what consumers say about them on social network sites. Company today rely much on social network sites as the usage on it is growing non stop. Ritchie (2012) add on with the point of social media usage in general was high, with 80 percent of U.S. firms using Facebook. The numbers were 48 percent for LinkedIn, 45 percent for Twitter and 31 percent for YouTube.

Media are playing an important role in our life since their existence but the society now are shifting to new media world, where most of the things they do is related to new media. Will the traditional media extinct in the future?


Deuze, M 2006, Liquid Life, Convergence Culture, and Media Work, accessed 8/9/2012,

Ritchie, J 2012, Most U.S. companies listen to customers on social network sites, accessed 8/9/2012,

Wasserman, T 2012, Internet Ad Revenues Hit $31 Billion in 2011, Up 22% over 2010, accessed 8/9/2012,


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In the article of Dyson et. al (1994), they mentioned that the introduction of new technology and new products creates the potential for dynamic competition between and among technologies and industries. In the old times, the only way for peoples to read news is through newspaper. But in the society today, there are varieties of ways for us to know about the latest news. For instance, broadcast radio and TV news, online news, phone application news, traditional newspaper and so on. According to Salwen, Garrison and Driscoll (2005), most of the television and radio stations, magazines, newspapers and all sort of publication have a presence online due to millions of web users read news on the Internet everyday (as cited in Dimitrova & Neznanski 2006).  As we could see, the news industry in society today is very competitive, each seeking to find the best way of serving customers’ needs. All the organizations are facing dilemma as well due to more people consume news online nowadays. Grabowicz (2012) revealed that organizations facing difficulties in reallocating resources to attract new readers and viewers while they are still trying to hold on to their existing, and usually aging, print or broadcast audiences.

According to Dyson et. al (1994) as well, “cyberspace can be one of the main forms of glue holding together an increasingly free and diverse society”. This is truly applicable to teenagers in today society. Social media today provides us an opportunity to keep closer with our friends and family. Besides, smartphones come with many different applications for us to chat as well such as whatsapp, line, wechat and others. All these social media and applications allow us to keep in touch with peoples all the time. Besides, it enables us to chat with our overseas friends and family as well. Dyson et. al (1994) also discussed that the creation of “electronic neighbourhoods” bound together not by geography but by shared interests. People get together not by staying near to each other but with their common interest. For instance, those who like online gaming are able to know many people from all over the world when they are playing certain games. In cyberspace, we able to know many unknown people from all over the world by having the shared interest.

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Dimitrova, D & Neznanski, M 2006, Online journalism and the war in cyberspace: A comparison between U.S. and international newspapers. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication12(1), accessed 29/8/2012,

Grabowicz, P 2012, Print and Broadcast News and the Internet, accessed 29/8/2012,

Dyson, E, Gilder, G, Keyworth, G & Toffler, A 1994, Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age, accessed 29/8/2012,